New Orleans removed a monument to the Battle of Liberty Place, part of what is seen as a wider movement to remove symbols of Confederacy and Jim Crow.
In the 1874 battle, a mostly Confederate veteran army which was part of the Democratic Party, fought New Orleans metro police and state militia, and held official buildings for days until federal troops removed them.
The battle was part of violence that followed a contested 1872 gubernatorial election in which both parties claimed victory.
The monument was erected in 1891 to celebrate and remember the Democratic insurrection. A white obelisk and inscription expressed what some consider white supremacist views.
Mayor Mitch Landrieu removed the monument without warning in the early morning hours, and told the public other monuments would be taken down in the same way.
Some called Landrieu’s method “the coward’s way,” and criticised Landrieu for removing pieces of New Orleans’ history, which is also an important part of the city’s tourist economy.
By way of explanation, Landrieu stated, “We will no longer allow the Confederacy to literally be put on a pedestal in the heart of our city.”